Carlo Guarmani
Guarmani was sent to Desert Arabia in 1864 to acquire horses for Napoleon III. He wrote an intriguing account of his views on the Arab horse entitled, El Kamsa (1864), and two years later his description of the journey was published. An English translation of the latter appeared in 1938 under the title, Northern Najd; A Journey from Jerusalem to Anaiza in Qasim. Guarmani is but one of the many Europeans who ventured into Arabia for bloodstock in the nineteenth century. Earlier travelers' accounts were published by Karl Wilhelm Ammon in 1834. The Olms Presse produced an English translation of this essential source under the title Historical Reports on Arab Horse Breeding and the Arabian Horse (1993).

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